The secret societies and the Portuguese Revolution

It is customary, when speaking of the proclamation of the Republic in 1910, relating the event with the decisive action of the secret societies - the Freemasons and the Carbonari - which often leads to confusion, mistakes and blunders. We are dealing with two separate organizations at all levels, from the origins, foundational contexts, references, composition and social objectives. While the Carbonari was in fact a secret organization, acting in the greatest secrecy, nothing transpiring abroad, Freemasonry could hardly be classified as such, since they were known the names of its directors and edited newsletters and directories with information about many responsible nationally and locally. (...)
António Ventura, Professor at the Faculty of Arts (Lisbon)
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