Freemasonry and the implantation of the Portuguese Republic (1910)

Book 'Freemasonry and the implantation of the Republic Day' brings unpublished documents
The schedule of the distribution around the table of the participants on the secret meeting between responsibles of the legal and clandestine revolutionary movement, on the 29 September 1910, is one of the unpublished documents collected in the book 'Freemasonry and the foundation of the Republic' that is presented on the 5th of October in Mário Soares Foundation in Lisbon(click).

It is unknown what was decided at that meeting. One never know if the decisions were reported in the papers that the psychiatrist Miguel Bombarda (click) burned shortly after being severely wounded by four bullets fired by a Lieutenant of Infantry and his former mental patient, on the morning of 3d October 1910. The revolutionary who was in charge of coordinating the civilian operations died that day, but the Republic won. The centenary year of the Republic in Portugal is expected to release many new aspects of its history poorly known. The book, published jointly by Mário Soares Foundation and the Gremio Lusitano (click) is a first step along with the exhibition 'Who did the Republic', which will be inaugurated at the headquarters of Mário Soares Foundation in Sao Bento, Lisbon, and is intended to do roaming the country from January 2010.

Unpublished documents of the book prefaced together by Mário Soares (click) and António Reis (click), Grand - Master of the Grande Oriente Lusitano, were gathered and annotated by Simões Raposo Jr., who kept them for many years guarded outside Lisbon. It was he who made the outline of the meeting held at the Board of the Portuguese Republican Party (click). By the location appearing in the document (2nd floor of the corner of Serpa Pinto St. with the S. Carlos Square “last two balconies”), it looks the building where in the 4th floor was born on June 13, 1888 the poet Fernando Pessoa (click) and it is now fully occupied by the law firm ABBC Advogados, formed by Azevedo Neves, Benjamin Mendes, Bessa Monteiro, Carvalho & Associates.

From before the meeting the plan of the revolution included the cooperation of various revolutionary groups. Machado dos Santos and António Maria da Silva, were present at the meeting, and were elements of the Carbonaria (click) and also members of the Resistance Commission of freemasonry. Significant are also the letters of support that appear in the book as a response of the Masonic lodges to a secret circular sent to all the Lodges in June 1910.

In unpublished document are the names of those present and also those responsible for the revolutionary structures. The list includes Simões Raposo, of the Committee of Resistance of Freemasonry, Machado Santos, from the Committee of Resistance, representing the Deputy-Grand Master of Freemasonry, José de Castro, absent abroad, José Cordeiro Jr., of the Committee of Resistance, Antonio Maria da Silva (click), da Venda-Jovem Portugal, joined the Resistance Committee as a representative of revolutionary civil organizations, Jose Barbosa, from the Executive Board of the PRP; Inocente Camacho, secretary substitute, of the Board of the PRP, elected in 1889, Admiral Candido dos Reis, Revolutionary Directorate, Manuel Martins Cardoso, of Lodge Acacia and Commission of Resistance; dr. Eusebio Leão, secretary of the Executive Board of the PRP, José Relvas (click), member of the Executive Board of the PRP and representative of the Grand Master Magalhães Lima, dr. Miguel Bombarda, from the Committee of Resistance and the Revolutionary Directorate, representing António José de Almeida (click), on sick leave.
Via Correio da Manha
Consult also for a critical view of these events and the personalities involved in the deposing of the Portuguese monarchy "A shortened history of freemasonry in Portugal"(click) a research paper published, in 2002, in Pietre-Stones Review of Freemasonry by a masonic author.
(...) The revolution of 1910 was the epilogue of several attempts to depose the Portuguese monarchy that had existed at least from 31st January 1891. Its most deplorable episode was the assassination of the King, D. Carlos I, in February 1908 and the Prince Regent, D. Luis Filipe. With the support of freemasonry, the Republican Party had perpetrated the assassination of both royal figures using its army branch, the Carbonária. Machado Santos comments that one of the heads of Carbonária and a top official of the young officers that led the uprising was a freemason, saying: the work of the Portuguese revolution was due to freemasonry, uniquely and exclusively.
The republican revolution would account for the spontaneous union of large parts of the community and the weak resistance of the monarchic troops. Its rapid success can be explained as follow. First, the national unrest that resulted from the monarchic “rotation” in the legislative chamber created an alternation in power with little impact on the policies. Second, the national shame that emerged from the episodes of the Pink Map and British Ultimatum, when Portugal pride as independent state was seriously disrupted, both attributed to the incompetence of the monarchic government. Also, the governance of the monarchic executive was economically disastrous, which cultivated civil turmoil as a reaction to increasing inflation and the miserable conditions of the majority of the population.
With the proclamation of the Republic and the instalment of the first provisional government, which was led by Teófilo Barga with António José de Almeida as Interior Minister and Afonso Costa as Minister of Justice, all of whom were freemasons, freemasonry was acknowledged as a useful institution. Thus freemasonry became a useful attribute for those who pursued a political or bureaucratic career. During the 1st Republic, its membership doubled from 2000 to 4000, with a consequent increase in lodges and groups. In the Parliament more than half of the MPs were masons. In the Government of 1910-11, fifty per cent of the ministers were masons and this percentage was sustained in subsequent executives until 1926. Three Presidents of the Republic of Portugal were freemasons: Bernardino Machado, Sidónio Pais and António José de Almeida.(...)