Universal Freemasonry, a book by Miguel Martim-Albo
Singular associative phenomenon, Freemasonry in its more traditional expression - the operative lodges - emerge during the most remarkable period of the gothic architectural style among the builders corporations of Middle Age (architects, stonemasons, and builders in general). But is mostly in the XVII century that the new role of the speculative lodges - that were central to the Enlightnment and to the liberal political movement - begin to push for social recognition. Insofar, because of its capacity to antecipate the most important social and political transformations of that time, Freemasonry was able through its diverse obediences and rites to root itself within the societies that embedded it and was able to atract the bright minds of any time, either in America or in Europe. Among them intelectuals, artists, cientists, politicians of different nationalies and convictions, including religious. Tradition and legend has trasmitted per ages the idea that the masonic lodges always operated under cover and clandestine, in order to cover its cerimonies form the indiscretion of the so-called profanes. This is the reason why some of its cerimonies, namely the initiation continues to the regarded of interpretation and controversy. The book written by Miguel Martim-Albo "Maçonaria Universal" (Universal Freemasonry) looks in an independent way but with a fair historical analysis to assess the practices of these associations of "free men with good report". It is one of the most recent books to look at the costumes and rituals of this association whose roots came from the construction of the Temple of Saloman in Israel.